Thursday, September 04, 2008
Learning and Learning Difficulties: A Handbook for Teachers
By Peter Westwood
Published by Aust Council for Ed Research, 2004
ISBN 0864317697, 9780864317698
Definitions of learning from the field of psychology:
- Learning is the process whereby an organism changes its behavior as a result of experience
- Learning is a relatively permanent change in capacity for performance, acquired through experience
(Good & Brophy, 1990)
- Learning is a relatively permanent change in mental associations due to experience
- Learning is a potential change in behavior resulting from experience in processing information (Walker, 1996)
- Learning is the way that human beings acquire new skills, knowledge, attitudes and values. The outcome of learning are the new capabilities possessed by the learner
- Learning consists of the acquisition of increasingly automated schemata held in long-term memory (Sweller, 1999)
- Neuroscientists define learning as two neurons communicating with each other (Sprenger, 1999)
Monday, July 07, 2008
"Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, today is God's gift, that's why we call it the present."
Friday, May 09, 2008
EDUCATION is the “journey of hope”
– the journey towards a better, more just, more rational and more rewarding society.
Education has always aimed to nurture, represent, vivify and extend the values and modes of life which promise to MAKE the best in a particular culture / country BETTER.
Sunday, April 20, 2008
Semua guru bertaraf jawatan seperti dibawah
DLAB - LPBS AKADEMIK BIASA
DLJQ - LPBS j-QAF
DLPC - LPBS PENGAJIAN CINA
DLPI - LPBS PENGAJIAN ISLAM
DLPK - LPBS PENDIDIKAN KHAS
DLPT - LPBS PENGAJIAN TAMIL
KO3 - KONTRAK WARGANEGARA
KON - KONTRAK BUKAN WARGANEGARA
LTS - LANTIKAN SEMULA (Kontrak selepas pencen)
SARC - SAR KDC
SARL - SAR TERLATIH
SART - SAR TIDAK TERLATIH
SKDC - STT KDC
SMB - SAMBILAN / GANTI
SMT - SEMENTARA
STT - SANDARAN TIDAK TERLATIH
2. Semua Pengetua Cemerlang Kanan (PCM), Pengetua/Guru Besar (PGB), Pengetua/Guru Besar Khas Untuk Penyandang (PGK) dan Guru Cemerlang(GPR)
3.Semua Guru DG44 Hakiki berjawatan Penolong Kanan (PK1) di semua Sekolah Menengah.
4.Semua Guru DG44 Hakiki berjawatan Penolong Kanan HEM (PK2) di semua sekolah Menengah.
5.Semua Guru DGA32 Hakiki berjawatan Penolong Kanan (PK1) di semua Sekolah Rendah Gred A.
6.Semua Guru DGA32 Hakiki berjawatan Penolong Kanan HEM PK2) di semua Sekolah Rendah Gred A.
7.Semua Guru DGA32 Hakiki berjawatan PENOLONG KANAN KOKURIKULUM (PK3) di semua Sekolah Rendah Gred A.
8.Semua Guru DGA32 Hakiki berjawatan PENYELIA PETANG (PPT) di semua Sekolah Rendah Gred A.
9.Semua guru DG44 Hakiki berjawatan PENOLONG KANAN SUKAN DAN PENTADBIRAN (PKS) di Sekolah Sukan.
10.Semua guru DGA32 Hakiki berjawatan KETUA BENGKELdi sekolah Menengah Teknik
Sunday, April 13, 2008
1957 . Education Ordinance, 1957
1961 . Education Act, 1961
1963 . National Language Act 1963/67 (Revised . 1971)
1971 . University and University Colleges Act
1974 . Ungku Omar Polytechnic Act
1980 . Malaysian Examinations Council Act
1956 . Report of the Education Committee, 1956 (Razak Report)
1960 . Report of the Education Review Committee, 1960 (Rahman Talib Report)
1967 . Higher Education Planning Committee Report
1973 . Committee Report on a Study of Views on Education and the Community (Report on Dropouts)
1979 - Cabinet Committee Report on the Implementation of Education Policies (Mahathir Report)
1991 . Cabinet Committee Report on Training
Bahasa Melayu in the System of Education
1957 . Compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools
1970 . Medium of instruction in Standard 1
1975 . All English Primary Schools were converted into National Primary Schools
1976 . Medium of instruction in Form 1
1979 . Medium of instruction in Form VI, arts stream
1980 . Medium of instruction in Year 1 of arts faculty in universities
1981 . Medium of instruction in Form VI, science stream
1982 . Medium of instruction at all levels in schools
1983 . Medium of instruction for all courses in universities
Primary School Examinations
1957 . MSSEE (Malayan Secondary School Entrance Examination) was introduced
1963 . MSSEE was abolished
1967 . PDL (Standard Five Assessment) was introduced
1973 . UDT (Standard Three Assessment) was introduced
1982 - UDT was abolished
1988 . PDL was abolished
1988 . UPSR (Primary School Assessment) was introduced
Secondary School Examinations
1957 . LCE (Lower Certificate of Education) was introduced
1957 . OSC (Overseas Cambridge School Certificate) was introduced
1957 . FMC (Federation of Malaya Certificate) was introduced
1957 . QT (Qualifying Test) was introduced
1960 . SRP (Sijil Rendah Pelajaran) was introduced
1961 . UK (Ujian Kelayakan) was introduced
1962 . SPPTM (Sijil Pelajaran Persekutuan Tanah Melayu) was introduced
1964 . SPPTM was abolished
1964 . FMC was abolished
1964 . MCE (Malaysian Certificate of Education) was introduced
1964 . SPM (Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia) was introduced
1967 . Objective questions were introduced in SRP/LCE papers
1968 . OSC was abolished in Peninsular Malaysia
1969 . SPVM (Sijil Pelajaran Vokasional Malaysia) was introduced
1976 . Malay Language Examination (July) was introduced
1976 . MCE was taken over by the Examinations Syndicate
1982 . HSC (Higher School Certificate Cambridge) was abolished
1982 . STPM (Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia) was introduced after being taken over by the Malaysian Examinations Council
1983 - LCE Malay Oral Test was abolished
1983 . SRP English Oral Test was abolished
1987 . SPVM certificate was converted to SPM(V)
1987 . SPM was held throughout Malaysia
1991 . KHPP (Kemahiran Hidup Program Peralihan) SRP was introduced
1992 . Final year for SRP
1993 . PMR (Penilaian Menengah Rendah) was introduced
1993 . SPM based on the KBSM (Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Menengah) was introduced
1956 . General Syllabuses and Timetable Committee was formed
1964 . General Syllabuses and Review Committee was formed
1965 . Comprehensive Education was introduced
1967 . Report of the Committee on Curriculum Planning and Development
1973 . Curriculum Development Centre (PPK) was established
1982 . KBSR trial run in 302 primary schools
1983 . KBSR was implemented in all primary schools
1988 . KBSR was fully implemented
1988 . Implementation of KBSM starting with language subjects
1989 . Implementation of KBSM for other subjects
1989 . Living Skills Programme for Remove Class was introduced in Form 1
1989 . Implementation of PKBS in Years 1 . 6 in all primary schools
1989 . Manipulative Skills was launched in 100 primary schools
1991 . Manipulative Skills was implemented in 1000 primary schools
1991 . Integrated Living Skills was introduced in Form 1
1992 . Manipulative Living Skills was implemented in 3000 primary schools
1993 . Living Skills was introduced in Year 4 in all primary schools.
Schools that had implemented Manipulative Skills expanded its implementation to Years 5 and
6 of primary school.
1964 . Special Education Unit was established
1978 . Formation of Comprehensive Communication National Committee
1981 . Inter-Ministry Committee for Special Education (Ministry of Social Welfare / Ministry of Health / Ministry of Labor and Human Resources and the Ministry of Education as Chairman and secretary)
1984 . Committee among Ministries for the Registration and Placement of Disabled Children
1984 . Formation of State Children Placement Committee
1984 . Shah Alam Vocational Special Education Secondary School Curriculum National Committee was formed
1985 . Formation of Braille Publishing and Printing Pioneer Unit, Ministry of Education
1985 . National Welfare Services Council Meeting was formed
1985 . Ministry of Education Comprehensive Communication Co-ordination Working Committee
1987 . Establishment of Shah Alam Special Education Secondary School
1987 . Education of Children with Learning Disabilities Implementation Committee
1988 . Directive of Y.B. Minister of Education to study the giving of full aid to children with Slight Autism Behaviour
1989 . National Community Development Negotiation Council
1991 . National Advisory Board for the Education of Children with Special Education Needs
1993 . Committee to study policies, planning, co-ordination and implementation of education for children with special education needs
References: Teaching Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices, 2004,
The most effective teachers focus their behavioral intervention strategies on PRAISE than on PUNISHMENT. Negative consequences may temporarily change behavior, but they rarely change attitudes and may actually increase the frequency and intensity of inappropriate behavior by rewarding misbehaving students with attention. Punishment may only teach what not to do but it does not provide the skills needed to do what is expected. Positive reinforcement produces the changes in attitudes that will shape a STUDENT'S BEHAVIOUR over the long term.
Wednesday, April 09, 2008
Teachers Managing Stress and Preventing Burnout: The Professional
The impact of the changing society and the school as a social system has a profound effect on the individual teacher and the teacher's ability to be successful and remain in the profession.
Major issues that influence the dissatisfaction of teachers are for example high amount of required non-instructional duties, inadequate growth potential, lack of respect and status, lack of rewards and little autonomy, discipline problems, lack of parental and community support and prevalence of low morale and burnout.
Burnout is frequently cited as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism occurring among the education services professionals. Frequently, teachers cited causes of burnout to be from lack of administrative support, lack of parental and community support, workload, low student motivation and discipline problems.
The solution for this problems will then be simply developing positive relationship with the administration, decreasing workload and receiving more parental and community support along with EFFECTIVE disciplinary procedures that would surely help in decreasing burnout among teachers.
Teachers in Malaysia recurrently complain on the poor working conditions, the increase of paperwork and the declining status of teachers that show the way for job dissatisfaction.
Most teachers will surely agree that that the demands of the classroom seemed to be on a collision course with demands of home and personal life.
STRESS IS SURELY CAUSED BY organizational, student administrative and teacher –related factors.
My personal view, the ministry of education (THE GOVERMENT) ARE POIGNANT in regard to the reform movement of the education system in Malaysia. The Ministry of Education have largely overlooked 'the heart of the enterprise' ("enterprise" –EDUCATION ministry) ---- the TEACHERS ---- THIS oversight by the authorities has left the teachers dispirited, "CONFRONTED WITH WORKING CONDITIONS that have left TEACHERS MORE RESPONSIBLE ----BUT---- less empowered.
This book is by By Yvonne Gold, Robert
A. Roth, Published 1993
Routledge, 208 pages, ISBN:0750701587